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Massive underground reserves of water found in some of Africa's driest areas
Ðґℙ☺ṧ⊥мαη
Disgruntled but unarmed
User ID: 39573
04-23-2012 05:25 AM

Posts: 19,663



Post: #1
gmorning Massive underground reserves of water found in some of Africa's driest areas
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Huge reserves of underground water in some of the driest parts of Africa could provide a buffer against the effects of climate change for years to come, scientists said.

Researchers from the British Geological Survey and University College London have for the first time mapped the aquifers, or groundwater, across the continent and the amount they hold.

‘The largest groundwater volumes are found in the large sedimentary aquifers in the North African countries Libya, Algeria, Egypt and Sudan,’ the scientists said in their paper.

[Image: A0A7_4F94CB42.jpg]

They estimate that reserves of groundwater across the continent are 100 times the amount found on its surface, or 0.66 million cubic kilometres.

Writing in the journal Environmental Research Letters, they cautioned, though, that not all these reserves can be accessed.

Where they can, small-scale extraction using hand pumps would be better than large-scale drilling projects, which could quickly deplete the reservoirs and have other unforeseen consequences.

Groundwater is no panacea for Africa's water shortages but it could form an important part of a strategy to cope with an expected sharp increase in demand for water as the continent's population increases.

Even now, some estimates put the number of Africans without access to safe drinking water at more than 300 million and only 5 per cent of arable land is irrigated.

‘It is not as simple as drilling big bore holes and seeing rice fields spring up everywhere,’ said Dr Stephen Foster, a London-based senior adviser for aid group Global Water Partnership and an expert in groundwater issues.

‘In some places it could be economically and technically feasible to use groundwater to reduce crop loss, but I would question whether that is true everywhere. It will need detailed evaluation.

Foster noted that projects have failed due to cost and logistics problems.

‘In northern Nigeria there have been groundwater irrigation projects that have failed because of the rising cost of fuel - a major factor in drilling costs - and distribution difficulties.’

The researchers say some of the largest deposits are in the driest areas of Africa in and around the Sahara, but they are deep - at 100 to 250 meters below ground level.

‘Water levels deeper than 50 meters will not be able to be accessed easily by a hand pump,’ said the study, led by Dr Alan MacDonald of the British Geological Survey. ‘At depths greater than 100 meters the cost of borehole drilling increases significantly due to the requirement for more sophisticated drilling equipment.’

The amount of water a borehole yields is another key issue. A small community hand pump needs a borehole with a flow rate of 0.1 to 0.3 litres per second. For large-scale irrigation, the rate needs to be much higher, say around 50 litres.

Phoebe White, a water, sanitation and hygiene specialist for the UK Department for International Development based in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, said hand pumps in the DRC cost up to $13,000 apiece but in some areas the aquifers are too deep and other pumps must be used.

In areas of DRC where drilling deep boreholes is required the cost can be around $130,000, although problems of accessibility and infrastructure can push that figure up, according to White.

The researchers say the maps, based on existing geological charts from governments and hundreds of aquifer studies, are aimed at promoting a ‘more realistic assessments of water security and water stress’.

Read The Rest HERE

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LoP Guest
lop guest
User ID: 87578
04-23-2012 05:28 AM

 



Post: #2
RE: Massive underground reserves of water found in some of Africa's driest areas
Really? Let's frack it up. Can't very well have clean, drinkable water underground, can we? Here in the states that's something we and the gas companies won't tolerate.
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LoP Guest
lop guest
User ID: 65558
04-23-2012 05:32 AM

 



Post: #3
RE: Massive underground reserves of water found in some of Africa's driest areas
In laymans terms "somebody" will have to go over there and dig wells for these thirsty people, so they can lay around and breed more, and act even more irresponsibly.

And now a serious question:

Since AIDS is so rampent over there, what's the chance that this groundwater is contaminated with AIDS and bringing any of it to the surface would simply spread the desiease more quickly than they are doing via irresponsable behaiour right now?

Any biological water experts (expats?) out there, want to take a crack at this?
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LoP Guest
lop guest
User ID: 65558
04-23-2012 05:36 AM

 



Post: #4
RE: Massive underground reserves of water found in some of Africa's driest areas
DrPostman  Wrote: (04-23-2012 05:25 AM)
Huge reserves of underground water in some of the driest parts of Africa could provide a buffer against the effects of climate change for years to come, scientists said.

Researchers from the British Geological Survey and University College London have for the first time mapped the aquifers, or groundwater, across the continent and the amount they hold.

‘The largest groundwater volumes are found in the large sedimentary aquifers in the North African countries Libya, Algeria, Egypt and Sudan,’ the scientists said in their paper.

link to image: http://imgupld.lunaticoutpost.com/graphi...94CB42.jpg

They estimate that reserves of groundwater across the continent are 100 times the amount found on its surface, or 0.66 million cubic kilometres.

Writing in the journal Environmental Research Letters, they cautioned, though, that not all these reserves can be accessed.

Where they can, small-scale extraction using hand pumps would be better than large-scale drilling projects, which could quickly deplete the reservoirs and have other unforeseen consequences.

Groundwater is no panacea for Africa's water shortages but it could form an important part of a strategy to cope with an expected sharp increase in demand for water as the continent's population increases.

Even now, some estimates put the number of Africans without access to safe drinking water at more than 300 million and only 5 per cent of arable land is irrigated.

‘It is not as simple as drilling big bore holes and seeing rice fields spring up everywhere,’ said Dr Stephen Foster, a London-based senior adviser for aid group Global Water Partnership and an expert in groundwater issues.

‘In some places it could be economically and technically feasible to use groundwater to reduce crop loss, but I would question whether that is true everywhere. It will need detailed evaluation.

Foster noted that projects have failed due to cost and logistics problems.

‘In northern Nigeria there have been groundwater irrigation projects that have failed because of the rising cost of fuel - a major factor in drilling costs - and distribution difficulties.’

The researchers say some of the largest deposits are in the driest areas of Africa in and around the Sahara, but they are deep - at 100 to 250 meters below ground level.

‘Water levels deeper than 50 meters will not be able to be accessed easily by a hand pump,’ said the study, led by Dr Alan MacDonald of the British Geological Survey. ‘At depths greater than 100 meters the cost of borehole drilling increases significantly due to the requirement for more sophisticated drilling equipment.’

The amount of water a borehole yields is another key issue. A small community hand pump needs a borehole with a flow rate of 0.1 to 0.3 litres per second. For large-scale irrigation, the rate needs to be much higher, say around 50 litres.

Phoebe White, a water, sanitation and hygiene specialist for the UK Department for International Development based in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, said hand pumps in the DRC cost up to $13,000 apiece but in some areas the aquifers are too deep and other pumps must be used.

In areas of DRC where drilling deep boreholes is required the cost can be around $130,000, although problems of accessibility and infrastructure can push that figure up, according to White.

The researchers say the maps, based on existing geological charts from governments and hundreds of aquifer studies, are aimed at promoting a ‘more realistic assessments of water security and water stress’.

Read The Rest HERE

100 to 250 meters is not a deep water well. 2,000 feet starts getting deep. Mormons used augers and horses to dig wells deeper than this, so did the Railroads in the USA. But then again, they were dug by people who didn't mind hard work.

A feather weighs a ton to a lazy man, and a ton but an ounce to an industrious one.
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LooneyBin
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User ID: 29041
04-23-2012 05:41 AM

Posts: 2,927



Post: #5
RE: Massive underground reserves of water found in some of Africa's driest areas
LoP Guest  Wrote: (04-23-2012 05:32 AM)
In laymans terms "somebody" will have to go over there and dig wells for these thirsty people, so they can lay around and breed more, and act even more irresponsibly.

And now a serious question:

Since AIDS is so rampent over there, what's the chance that this groundwater is contaminated with AIDS and bringing any of it to the surface would simply spread the desiease more quickly than they are doing via irresponsable behaiour right now?

Any biological water experts (expats?) out there, want to take a crack at this?

AIDS doesn't spread via water. Futhermore, AIDS is the result of HIV.

Longer life spans due to food and water would probably help to lower the rate of HIV since people will not have to have 10 kids to have a couple survive.
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LoP Guest
lop guest
User ID: 78866
04-23-2012 05:48 AM

 



Post: #6
RE: Massive underground reserves of water found in some of Africa's driest areas
well what the hell are they waiting for, they need to get some white folks over there so they can get it out of the ground for them...cause lord knows....
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LoP Guest
lop guest
User ID: 67884
04-23-2012 06:25 AM

 



Post: #7
RE: Massive underground reserves of water found in some of Africa's driest areas
There are some that were saying that the attacks on Libya was a diversion to obtain, not Libya's oil, but it's water:

Quote:In the world's driest places, "fossil water" is becoming as valuable as fossil fuel, experts say.

This ancient freshwater was created eons ago and trapped underground in huge reservoirs, or aquifers. And like oil, no one knows how much there is—but experts do know that when it's gone, it's gone.

...paleowater is the only option in many water-strapped nations. For instance, Libya is habitable because of aquifers—some of them 75,000 years old—discovered under the Sahara's sands during 1950s oil explorations.
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/...vironment/
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DoomGuy
Rarrrrr!
User ID: 92037
04-23-2012 07:09 AM

Posts: 2,219



Post: #8
RE: Massive underground reserves of water found in some of Africa's driest areas
sadly this will barely help the poor africans that are struggling for a living. no doubt this resource is earmarked for the rich looking to set up a post shtf base.

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SoSayWeAll
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User ID: 53411
04-23-2012 07:29 AM

Posts: 7,254



Post: #9
RE: Massive underground reserves of water found in some of Africa's driest areas
LooneyBin  Wrote: (04-23-2012 05:41 AM)
LoP Guest  Wrote: (04-23-2012 05:32 AM)
In laymans terms "somebody" will have to go over there and dig wells for these thirsty people, so they can lay around and breed more, and act even more irresponsibly.

And now a serious question:

Since AIDS is so rampent over there, what's the chance that this groundwater is contaminated with AIDS and bringing any of it to the surface would simply spread the desiease more quickly than they are doing via irresponsable behaiour right now?

Any biological water experts (expats?) out there, want to take a crack at this?

AIDS doesn't spread via water. Futhermore, AIDS is the result of HIV.

Longer life spans due to food and water would probably help to lower the rate of HIV since people will not have to have 10 kids to have a couple survive.

Jptdknpa

No, they'll have 20 it what they DO...
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Ðґℙ☺ṧ⊥мαη
Disgruntled but unarmed
User ID: 39573
04-23-2012 07:31 AM

Posts: 19,663



Post: #10
RE: Massive underground reserves of water found in some of Africa's driest areas
DoomGuy  Wrote: (04-23-2012 07:09 AM)
sadly this will barely help the poor africans that are struggling for a living. no doubt this resource is earmarked for the rich looking to set up a post shtf base.
Fortunately there are some cheap alternatives for pumping the water
out of the ground:
http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/...lture-pump
http://www.howwemadeitinafrica.com/revol...rica/5020/

Especially this:
http://pumpaid.org/how/elephantpump/

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2NKUqMSndmA#!

"We kill people based on metadata."
— Gen. Hayden

DrPostman BsD, the Unhappener Extraordinaire
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LoP Guest
lop guest
User ID: 67907
04-23-2012 07:52 AM

 



Post: #11
RE: Massive underground reserves of water found in some of Africa's driest areas
Doesnt matter, they are just going to wind up pissing and shitting in it and giving it aids[/i]
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DoomGuy
Rarrrrr!
User ID: 92037
04-23-2012 09:29 AM

Posts: 2,219



Post: #12
RE: Massive underground reserves of water found in some of Africa's driest areas
DrPostman  Wrote: (04-23-2012 07:31 AM)
DoomGuy  Wrote: (04-23-2012 07:09 AM)
sadly this will barely help the poor africans that are struggling for a living. no doubt this resource is earmarked for the rich looking to set up a post shtf base.
Fortunately there are some cheap alternatives for pumping the water
out of the ground:
http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/...lture-pump
http://www.howwemadeitinafrica.com/revol...rica/5020/

Especially this:
http://pumpaid.org/how/elephantpump/

youtube.com/watch?v=2NKUqMSndmA#!

wow nice
you could pretty much make that with a rope and knots if you had the pipework and moved it fast enough

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reshmita
Registered User
User ID: 92057
04-23-2012 10:58 AM

Posts: 12



Post: #13
RE: Massive underground reserves of water found in some of Africa's driest areas
Great news. I have heard it for the first time. But if it's really there, Nothing better than this.
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LoP Guest
lop guest
User ID: 89885
04-23-2012 12:21 PM

 



Post: #14
RE: Massive underground reserves of water found in some of Africa's driest areas
LoP Guest  Wrote: (04-23-2012 05:28 AM)
Really? Let's frack it up. Can't very well have clean, drinkable water underground, can we? Here in the states that's something we and the gas companies won't tolerate.

words of truth.
even tho sad.
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Indigenous Intelligence
Registered User
User ID: 70676
04-23-2012 02:45 PM

Posts: 2,395



Post: #15
RE: Massive underground reserves of water found in some of Africa's driest areas
No surprise here.

Africa is full of riches yet the people living their are so stupid and tribal that they just kill each other or run around with spears.

Freakin' retards are starving to death and they are not smart enough to survive. S977
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