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The Russian "Firehose of Falsehood" Propaganda Model
spɹɐʍoɔ snoɯʎuouɐ
☇☇Vocem sine nomine audivit!☇☇
User ID: 350320
11-08-2019 05:50 AM

Posts: 35,197




Post: #1
The Russian "Firehose of Falsehood" Propaganda Model
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Since its 2008 incursion into Georgia (if not before), there has been a remarkable evolution in Russia's approach to propaganda. This new approach was on full display during the country's 2014 annexation of the Crimean peninsula. It continues to be demonstrated in support of ongoing conflicts in Ukraine and Syria and in pursuit of nefarious and long-term goals in Russia's “near abroad” and against NATO allies.

In some ways, the current Russian approach to propaganda builds on Soviet Cold War–era techniques, with an emphasis on obfuscation and on getting targets to act in the interests of the propagandist without realizing that they have done so.1 In other ways, it is completely new and driven by the characteristics of the contemporary information environment. Russia has taken advantage of technology and available media in ways that would have been inconceivable during the Cold War. Its tools and channels now include the Internet, social media, and the evolving landscape of professional and amateur journalism and media outlets.
  • Distinctive Features of the Contemporary Model for Russian Propaganda
  • High-volume and multichannel
  • Rapid, continuous, and repetitive
  • Lacks commitment to objective reality
  • Lacks commitment to consistency.
  • We characterize the contemporary Russian model for propaganda as “the firehose of falsehood” because of two of its distinctive features: high numbers of channels and messages and a shameless willingness to disseminate partial truths or outright fictions. In the words of one observer, “[N]ew Russian propaganda entertains, confuses and overwhelms the audience.”2
Contemporary Russian propaganda has at least two other distinctive features. It is also rapid, continuous, and repetitive, and it lacks commitment to consistency.

Interestingly, several of these features run directly counter to the conventional wisdom on effective influence and communication from government or defense sources, which traditionally emphasize the importance of truth, credibility, and the avoidance of contradiction.3 Despite ignoring these traditional principles, Russia seems to have enjoyed some success under its contemporary propaganda model, either through more direct persuasion and influence or by engaging in obfuscation, confusion, and the disruption or diminution of truthful reporting and messaging.

We offer several possible explanations for the effectiveness of Russia's firehose of falsehood. Our observations draw from a concise, but not exhaustive, review of the literature on influence and persuasion, as well as experimental research from the field of psychology. We explore the four identified features of the Russian propaganda model and show how and under what circumstances each might contribute to effectiveness. Many successful aspects of Russian propaganda have surprising foundations in the psychology literature, so we conclude with a brief discussion of possible approaches from the same field for responding to or competing with such an approach.

Russian Propaganda Is High-Volume and Multichannel

Russian propaganda is produced in incredibly large volumes and is broadcast or otherwise distributed via a large number of channels. This propaganda includes text, video, audio, and still imagery propagated via the Internet, social media, satellite television, and traditional radio and television broadcasting. The producers and disseminators include a substantial force of paid Internet “trolls” who also often attack or undermine views or information that runs counter to Russian themes, doing so through online chat rooms, discussion forums, and comments sections on news and other websites.4 Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty reports that “there are thousands of fake accounts on Twitter, Facebook, LiveJournal, and vKontakte” maintained by Russian propagandists. According to a former paid Russian Internet troll, the trolls are on duty 24 hours a day, in 12-hour shifts, and each has a daily quota of 135 posted comments of at least 200 characters.5

All other things being equal, messages received in greater volume and from more sources will be more persuasive.


RT (formerly Russia Today) is one of Russia's primary multimedia news providers. With a budget of more than $300 million per year, it broadcasts in English, French, German, Spanish, Russian, and several Eastern European languages. The channel is particularly popular online, where it claims more than a billion page views. If true, that would make it the most-watched news source on the Internet.6 In addition to acknowledged Russian sources like RT, there are dozens of proxy news sites presenting Russian propaganda, but with their affiliation with Russia disguised or downplayed.7

Experimental research shows that, to achieve success in disseminating propaganda, the variety of sources matters:

Multiple sources are more persuasive than a single source, especially if those sources contain different arguments that point to the same conclusion.
Receiving the same or similar message from multiple sources is more persuasive.
People assume that information from multiple sources is likely to be based on different perspectives and is thus worth greater consideration.8
The number and volume of sources also matter:

Endorsement by a large number of users boosts consumer trust, reliance, and confidence in the information, often with little attention paid to the credibility of those making the endorsements.
When consumer interest is low, the persuasiveness of a message can depend more on the number of arguments supporting it than on the quality of those arguments.9
What Matters in Producing and Disseminating High-Volume, Multichannel Propaganda?
Variety of sources
Number and volume of sources
The views of others, especially the views of those who are similiar to the message recipient.
Finally, the views of others matter, especially if the message comes from a source that shares characteristics with the recipient:

Communications from groups to which the recipient belongs are more likely to be perceived as credible. The same applies when the source is perceived as similar to the recipient. If a propaganda channel is (or purports to be) from a group the recipient identifies with, it is more likely to be persuasive.

Credibility can be social; that is, people are more likely to perceive a source as credible if others perceive the source as credible. This effect is even stronger when there is not enough information available to assess the trustworthiness of the source.
When information volume is low, recipients tend to favor experts, but when information volume is high, recipients tend to favor information from other users.
In online forums, comments attacking a proponent's expertise or trustworthiness diminish credibility and decrease the likelihood that readers will take action based on what they have read.10

The experimental psychology literature suggests that, all other things being equal, messages received in greater volume and from more sources will be more persuasive. Quantity does indeed have a quality all its own. High volume can deliver other benefits that are relevant in the Russian propaganda context. First, high volume can consume the attention and other available bandwidth of potential audiences, drowning out competing messages. Second, high volume can overwhelm competing messages in a flood of disagreement. Third, multiple channels increase the chances that target audiences are exposed to the message. Fourth, receiving a message via multiple modes and from multiple sources increases the message's perceived credibility, especially if a disseminating source is one with which an audience member identifies.

Russian Propaganda Is Rapid, Continuous, and Repetitive
Contemporary Russian propaganda is continuous and very responsive to events. Due to their lack of commitment to objective reality (discussed later), Russian propagandists do not need to wait to check facts or verify claims; they just disseminate an interpretation of emergent events that appears to best favor their themes and objectives. This allows them to be remarkably responsive and nimble, often broadcasting the first “news” of events (and, with similar frequency, the first news of nonevents, or things that have not actually happened). They will also repeat and recycle disinformation. The January 14, 2016, edition of Weekly Disinformation Review reported the reemergence of several previously debunked Russian propaganda stories, including that Polish President Andrzej Duda was insisting that Ukraine return former Polish territory, that Islamic State fighters were joining pro-Ukrainian forces, and that there was a Western-backed coup in Kiev, Ukraine’s capital.

more:
https://www.rand.org/pubs/perspectives/PE198.html

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If you don’t think so, then you are what is called ‘an idiot’.
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11-08-2019 06:08 AM

 




Post: #2
RE: The Russian "Firehose of Falsehood" Propaganda Model
MUH WUSSIANS
\
Ojietnde
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Яudis
The Contrarian
User ID: 321381
11-08-2019 06:19 AM

Posts: 12,810




Post: #3
RE: The Russian "Firehose of Falsehood" Propaganda Model
American Imperialist: The Millionaire.
Russian Kids Were Watching This!






It Only Works on the OVER 65 Crowd!
Times have Changed Since these Films Were Made
and Shown Year After Year In Schools In Russia!
(This post was last modified: 11-08-2019 10:06 AM by Disturbed.) Quote this message in a reply
Яudis
The Contrarian
User ID: 321381
11-08-2019 06:31 AM

Posts: 12,810




Post: #4
RE: The Russian "Firehose of Falsehood" Propaganda Model
Yep and American Kids Were Watching
These Government Made Films in Schools.





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LoP Guest
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11-08-2019 06:50 AM

 




Post: #5
RE: The Russian "Firehose of Falsehood" Propaganda Model
banks fund all sides of war
All wars are their wars at the top.... divide and conquer
All countries are run via the royalty and nobility families of Europe
All world leaders are working together.. just act like enemies
Ones that don't seem to go away
chuckle
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spɹɐʍoɔ snoɯʎuouɐ
☇☇Vocem sine nomine audivit!☇☇
User ID: 350320
11-08-2019 10:47 AM

Posts: 35,197




Post: #6
RE: The Russian "Firehose of Falsehood" Propaganda Model






How I Helped Hack Democracy

Quote:We had spent several weeks calibrating everything, making sure the app worked, that it would pull in the right data, and that everything matched when it injected the data into the internal databases. We were standing by the computer in London, and Dr. Aleksandr Kogan, a professor who specialized in computational modeling of psychological traits, was in Cambridge. Kogan launched the app, and someone said, “Yay.” With that, we were live.

The app worked in concert with Amazon Mechanical Turk, or MTurk. Researchers would invite MTurk members to take a short test, in exchange for a small payment. But in order to get paid, they would have to download our app on Facebook and input a special code. The app, which we called “This Is Your Digital Life,” would take all the responses from the survey and put those into one table. It would then pull all of the user’s Facebook data and put it into a second table. And then it would pull all the data for all the person’s Facebook friends and put that into another table.

One person’s response would, on average, produce the records of three hundred other people. Each of those people would have, say, a couple hundred likes that we could analyze. We needed to organize and track all of those likes. How many possible items, photos, links, and pages are there to like across all of Facebook? Trillions. A Facebook page for some random band in Oklahoma, for example, might have 28 likes in the whole country, but it still counts as its own like in the feature set. We put $100,000 into the account to start recruiting people via MTurk, then waited.

I knew that it would take a bit of time for people to see the survey on MTurk, fill it out, then install the app to get paid. Not long after the underwhelming launch, we saw our first hit.

Then the flood came. We got our first record, then two, then 20, then 100, then 1,000 — all within seconds. Chief technology officer Tadas Jucikas added a random beeping sound to a record counter, and his computer started going boop-boop-boop as the numbers went insane. The increments of zeroes just kept building, growing the tables at exponential rates as friend profiles were added to the database. This was exciting for everyone, but for the data scientists among us, it was like an injection of pure adrenaline.

more:
http://nymag.com/intelligencer/2019/10/b...wylie.html
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spɹɐʍoɔ snoɯʎuouɐ
☇☇Vocem sine nomine audivit!☇☇
User ID: 350320
11-08-2019 10:50 AM

Posts: 35,197




Post: #7
RE: The Russian "Firehose of Falsehood" Propaganda Model











This this theory (that the Right is experiencing a God is dead moment) is interesting. I’ve had Christians, in an attempt to wrap their mind around a Godless/religion-less existence, ask, almost in a state of befuddlement, “but where would we get our morals/values??”

https://threadreaderapp.com/thread/11873...45281.html





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11-08-2019 10:58 AM

 




Post: #8
RE: The Russian "Firehose of Falsehood" Propaganda Model
TL;DR


The RUSSIANS ARE COMBING!!!11!11!11 Scream1
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spɹɐʍoɔ snoɯʎuouɐ
☇☇Vocem sine nomine audivit!☇☇
User ID: 350320
11-08-2019 11:29 AM

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Post: #9
RE: The Russian "Firehose of Falsehood" Propaganda Model
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Roddy
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User ID: 516557
11-08-2019 01:20 PM

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Post: #10
RE: The Russian "Firehose of Falsehood" Propaganda Model
[Image: giphy.gif]

I do not label myself. What I stand for is based on my own convictions, and I don't care which box - the left one or the right one - they happen to belong to.
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11-08-2019 01:25 PM

 




Post: #11
RE: The Russian "Firehose of Falsehood" Propaganda Model
AC would love a big meaty firehose spraying everywhere
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Estrella
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11-08-2019 01:27 PM

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Post: #12
RE: The Russian "Firehose of Falsehood" Propaganda Model
spɹɐʍoɔ snoɯʎuouɐ  Wrote: (11-08-2019 05:50 AM)
[*]High-volume and multichannel
[*]Rapid, continuous, and repetitive
[*]Lacks commitment to objective reality
[*]Lacks commitment to consistency.

Just like OP's threads Ihoohase
(This post was last modified: 11-08-2019 01:29 PM by Estrella.) Quote this message in a reply
spɹɐʍoɔ snoɯʎuouɐ
☇☇Vocem sine nomine audivit!☇☇
User ID: 350320
11-08-2019 01:45 PM

Posts: 35,197




Post: #13
RE: The Russian "Firehose of Falsehood" Propaganda Model
[Image: ?u=https%3A%2F%2Fmedia.giphy.com%2Fmedia...amp;nofb=1]




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spɹɐʍoɔ snoɯʎuouɐ
☇☇Vocem sine nomine audivit!☇☇
User ID: 350320
11-08-2019 01:57 PM

Posts: 35,197




Post: #14
RE: The Russian "Firehose of Falsehood" Propaganda Model
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spɹɐʍoɔ snoɯʎuouɐ
☇☇Vocem sine nomine audivit!☇☇
User ID: 350320
11-08-2019 02:17 PM

Posts: 35,197




Post: #15
RE: The Russian "Firehose of Falsehood" Propaganda Model
Quote:And when people are unable to see, are unwilling to acknowledge, and, worse, enable and defend these tactics, it often triggers experiences where the disordered people in their life charmed and dishonestly manipulated the narrative, and the public perception.

This often leaves the non-disordered person's life and reputation in shambles, and they're left to pick up the pieces after years or decades of being lied to and lied about. This rebuilding process can, and usually does, also take years, and even decades.

Because people have seen what these disorders can and have done on the small scale of their personal life, they fear the consequences of these disorders on the world stage. Trump has done nothing to alleviate or dispel their concerns. The question is, how many years or decades will it take for the country to pick up the pieces and recover from Trump and the #TrickleDownPathology that we are experiencing?

more:
https://www.patreon.com/posts/30826240
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