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FOllow the white rabbit
spɹɐʍoɔ snoɯʎuouɐ
☇☇Vocem sine nomine audivit!☇☇
User ID: 350320
03-26-2020 06:33 AM

Posts: 46,386




Post: #46
RE: FOllow the white rabbit
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Quote:Shaping is a conditioning paradigm used primarily in the experimental analysis of behavior. The method used is differential reinforcement of successive approximations. It was introduced by B. F. Skinner with pigeons and extended to dogs, dolphins, humans and other species. In shaping, the form of an existing response is gradually changed across successive trials towards a desired target behavior by reinforcing exact segments of behavior.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shaping_(psychology)

Noncontingent reinforcement
Noncontingent reinforcement is the delivery of reinforcing stimuli regardless of the organism's behavior. Noncontingent reinforcement may be used in an attempt to reduce an undesired target behavior by reinforcing multiple alternative responses while extinguishing the target response.[20] As no measured behavior is identified as being strengthened, there is controversy surrounding the use of the term noncontingent "reinforcement".[21]


Stimulus control of operant behavior

Though initially operant behavior is emitted without an identified reference to a particular stimulus, during operant conditioning operants come under the control of stimuli that are present when behavior is reinforced. Such stimuli are called "discriminative stimuli." A so-called "three-term contingency" is the result. That is, discriminative stimuli set the occasion for responses that produce reward or punishment. Example: a rat may be trained to press a lever only when a light comes on; a dog rushes to the kitchen when it hears the rattle of his/her food bag; a child reaches for candy when s/he sees it on a table.

Discrimination, generalization & context
Most behavior is under stimulus control. Several aspects of this may be distinguished:


Discrimination typically occurs when a response is reinforced only in the presence of a specific stimulus. For example, a pigeon might be fed for pecking at a red light and not at a green light; in consequence, it pecks at red and stops pecking at green. Many complex combinations of stimuli and other conditions have been studied; for example an organism might be reinforced on an interval schedule in the presence of one stimulus and on a ratio schedule in the presence of another.

Generalization is the tendency to respond to stimuli that are similar to a previously trained discriminative stimulus. For example, having been trained to peck at "red" a pigeon might also peck at "pink", though usually less strongly.
Context refers to stimuli that are continuously present in a situation, like the walls, tables, chairs, etc. in a room, or the interior of an operant conditioning chamber. Context stimuli may come to control behavior as do discriminative stimuli, though usually more weakly. Behaviors learned in one context may be absent, or altered, in another. This may cause difficulties for behavioral therapy, because behaviors learned in the therapeutic setting may fail to occur
Behavioral sequences: conditioned reinforcement and chaining
Most behavior cannot easily be described in terms of individual responses reinforced one by one. The scope of operant analysis is expanded through the idea of behavioral chains, which are sequences of responses bound together by the three-term contingencies defined above. Chaining is based on the fact, experimentally demonstrated, that a discriminative stimulus not only sets the occasion for subsequent behavior, but it can also reinforce a behavior that precedes it. That is, a discriminative stimulus is also a "conditioned reinforcer". For example, the light that sets the occasion for lever pressing may be used to reinforce "turning around" in the presence of a noise. This results in the sequence "noise – turn-around – light – press lever – food". Much longer chains can be built by adding more stimuli and responses.

Escape and avoidance
In escape learning, a behavior terminates an (aversive) stimulus. For example, shielding one's eyes from sunlight terminates the (aversive) stimulation of bright light in one's eyes. (This is an example of negative reinforcement, defined above.) Behavior that is maintained by preventing a stimulus is called "avoidance," as, for example, putting on sun glasses before going outdoors. Avoidance behavior raises the so-called "avoidance paradox", for, it may be asked, how can the non-occurrence of a stimulus serve as a reinforcer? This question is addressed by several theories of avoidance (see below).

Two kinds of experimental settings are commonly used: discriminated and free-operant avoidance learning.


Discriminated avoidance learning
A discriminated avoidance experiment involves a series of trials in which a neutral stimulus such as a light is followed by an aversive stimulus such as a shock. After the neutral stimulus appears an operant response such as a lever press prevents or terminate the aversive stimulus. In early trials, the subject does not make the response until the aversive stimulus has come on, so these early trials are called "escape" trials. As learning progresses, the subject begins to respond during the neutral stimulus and thus prevents the aversive stimulus from occurring. Such trials are called "avoidance trials." This experiment is said to involve classical conditioning because a neutral CS (conditioned stimulus) is paired with the aversive US (unconditioned stimulus); this idea underlies the two-factor theory of avoidance learning described below.


Free-operant avoidance learning
In free-operant avoidance a subject periodically receives an aversive stimulus (often an electric shock) unless an operant response is made; the response delays the onset of the shock. In this situation, unlike discriminated avoidance, no prior stimulus signals the shock. Two crucial time intervals determine the rate of avoidance learning. This first is the S-S (shock-shock) interval. This is time between successive shocks in the absence of a response. The second interval is the R-S (response-shock) interval. This specifies the time by which an operant response delays the onset of the next shock. Note that each time the subject performs the operant response, the R-S interval without shock begins anew.


Two-process theory of avoidance
This theory was originally proposed in order to explain discriminated avoidance learning, in which an organism learns to avoid an aversive stimulus by escaping from a signal for that stimulus. Two processes are involved: classical conditioning of the signal followed by operant conditioning of the escape response:

a) Classical conditioning of fear. Initially the organism experiences the pairing of a CS with an aversive US. The theory assumes that this pairing creates an association between the CS and the US through classical conditioning and, because of the aversive nature of the US, the CS comes to elicit a conditioned emotional reaction (CER) – "fear." b) Reinforcement of the operant response by fear-reduction. As a result of the first process, the CS now signals fear; this unpleasant emotional reaction serves to motivate operant responses, and responses that terminate the CS are reinforced by fear termination. Note that the theory does not say that the organism "avoids" the US in the sense of anticipating it, but rather that the organism "escapes" an aversive internal state that is caused by the CS. Several experimental findings seem to run counter to two-factor theory. For example, avoidance behavior often extinguishes very slowly even when the initial CS-US pairing never occurs again, so the fear response might be expected to extinguish (see Classical conditioning). Further, animals that have learned to avoid often show little evidence of fear, suggesting that escape from fear is not necessary to maintain avoidance behavior.[22]


Operant or "one-factor" theory
Some theorists suggest that avoidance behavior may simply be a special case of operant behavior maintained by its consequences. In this view the idea of "consequences" is expanded to include sensitivity to a pattern of events. Thus, in avoidance, the consequence of a response is a reduction in the rate of aversive stimulation. Indeed, experimental evidence suggests that a "missed shock" is detected as a stimulus, and can act as a reinforcer. Cognitive theories of avoidance take this idea a step farther. For example, a rat comes to "expect" shock if it fails to press a lever and to "expect no shock" if it presses it, and avoidance behavior is strengthened if these expectancies are confirmed

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operant_co..._of_effect
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spɹɐʍoɔ snoɯʎuouɐ
☇☇Vocem sine nomine audivit!☇☇
User ID: 350320
03-26-2020 06:34 AM

Posts: 46,386




Post: #47
RE: FOllow the white rabbit
Shaping is used in training operant responses in lab animals, and in applied behavior analysis to change human or animal behaviors considered to be maladaptive or dysfunctional. It also plays an important role in commercial animal training. Shaping assists in "discrimination", which is the ability to tell the difference between stimuli that are and are not reinforced, and in "generalization", which is the application of a response learned in one situation to a different but similar situation.[5]

Shaping can also be used in a rehabilitation center. For example, training on parallel bars can approximate walking with a walker.[6] Or shaping can teach patients how to increase the time between bathroom visits.
Autoshaping
Autoshaping (sometimes called sign tracking) is any of a variety of experimental procedures used to study classical conditioning. In autoshaping, in contrast to shaping, the reward comes irrespective of the behavior of the animal. In its simplest form, autoshaping is very similar to Pavlov's salivary conditioning procedure using dogs. In Pavlov's best-known procedure, a short audible tone reliably preceded the presentation of food to dogs. The dogs naturally, unconditionally, salivated (unconditioned response) to the food (unconditioned stimulus) given to them, but through learning, conditionally, came to salivate (conditioned response) to the tone (conditioned stimulus) that predicted food. In auto-shaping, a light is reliably turned on shortly before animals are given food. The animals naturally, unconditionally, display consummatory reactions to the food given them, but through learning, conditionally, came to perform those same consummatory actions directed at the conditioned stimulus that predicts food.


Autoshaping provides an interesting conundrum for B.F. Skinner's assertion that one must employ shaping as a method for teaching a pigeon to peck a key. After all, if an animal can shape itself, why use the laborious process of shaping? Autoshaping also contradicts Skinner's principle of reinforcement. During autoshaping, food comes irrespective of the behavior of the animal. If reinforcement were occurring, random behaviors should increase in frequency because they should have been rewarded by random food. Nonetheless, key-pecking reliably develops in pigeons,[7] even if this behavior had never been rewarded.

But, the clearest evidence that auto-shaping is under Pavlovian and not Skinnerian control was found using the omission procedure. In that procedure,[8] food is normally scheduled for delivery following each presentation of a stimulus (often a flash of light), except in cases in which the animal actually performs a consummatory response to the stimulus, in which case food is withheld. Here, if the behavior were under instrumental control, the animal would stop attempting to consume the stimulus, as that behaviour is followed by the withholding of food. But, animals persist in attempting to consume the conditioned stimulus for thousands of trials[9] (a phenomenon known as negative automaintenance), unable to cease their behavioural response to the conditioned stimulus even when it prevents them from obtaining a reward.

autoshaping is an instance of classical conditioning; the autoshaping procedure has, in fact, become one of the most common ways to measure classical conditioning. In this view, many behaviors can be influenced by both classical contingencies (stimulus-response) and operant contingencies (response-reinforcement), and the experimenter's task is to work out how these interact.[37]

The example of someone having a positive experience with a drug is easy to see how drug dependence and the law of effect works. The tolerance for a drug goes up as one continues to use it after having a positive experience with a certain amount the first time.[38] It will take more and more to get that same feeling. This is when the controlled substance in an experiment would have to be modified and the experiment would really begin. The law of work for psychologist B. F. Skinner almost half a century later on the principles of operant conditioning, "a learning process by which the effect, or consequence, of a response influences the future rate of production of that response.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operant_co..._of_effect

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"u"
banana"s"
User ID: 539756
03-26-2020 06:34 AM

Posts: 1,363




Post: #48
RE: FOllow the white rabbit
the great hack is a sunny guy

Can't Stump the Gump
Idol1
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Lakeofmarch
Axte Incal, Axtuce Mun
User ID: 538381
03-26-2020 06:42 AM

Posts: 10,260




Post: #49
RE: FOllow the white rabbit
You just made the haystack bigger, AC. No matter; the needle is still there.

All the world says my Tao is great, but seems odd, like nothing on earth.
If it was like anything else, how small it would have been from the very beginning!
https://terebess.hu/english/tao/wu.html
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Son Calenda/Fudo Myoo
secretsun.blogspot.com
-NO8DO-
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spɹɐʍoɔ snoɯʎuouɐ
☇☇Vocem sine nomine audivit!☇☇
User ID: 350320
03-26-2020 06:49 AM

Posts: 46,386




Post: #50
RE: FOllow the white rabbit
Lakeofmarch  Wrote: (03-26-2020 06:42 AM)
You just made the haystack bigger, AC. No matter; the needle is still there.

Who is Alice?
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spɹɐʍoɔ snoɯʎuouɐ
☇☇Vocem sine nomine audivit!☇☇
User ID: 350320
03-26-2020 05:01 PM

Posts: 46,386




Post: #51
RE: FOllow the white rabbit



©®êå†ꂅ
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“I am a ‘conspiracy theorist’.
I believe men and women of wealth and power conspire.
If you don’t think so, then you are what is called ‘an idiot’.
If you believe stuff but fear the label, you are what is called ‘a coward’.”
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"u"
banana"s"
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03-26-2020 05:01 PM

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Post: #52
RE: FOllow the white rabbit
spɹɐʍoɔ snoɯʎuouɐ  Wrote: (03-26-2020 06:49 AM)
Lakeofmarch  Wrote: (03-26-2020 06:42 AM)
You just made the haystack bigger, AC. No matter; the needle is still there.

Who is Alice?



#WWG1WGA

Alices Existential Threat

Can't Stump the Gump
Idol1
(This post was last modified: 03-26-2020 05:06 PM by "u".) Quote this message in a reply
spɹɐʍoɔ snoɯʎuouɐ
☇☇Vocem sine nomine audivit!☇☇
User ID: 350320
03-26-2020 05:13 PM

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Post: #53
RE: FOllow the white rabbit
So Alice is the collective of western democracies and post-WWII geopolitical alliances that your brand of hybrid fascism is trying to destroy... for the goal of establishing a global corporatocracy controlled authoritarian theocratic technocracy.

well n00b, this is not new to me.
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LoP Guest
lop guest
User ID: 538605
03-26-2020 05:16 PM

 




Post: #54
RE: FOllow the white rabbit
The rabbit done died.



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LoP Guest
lop guest
User ID: 424027
03-26-2020 05:18 PM

 




Post: #55
RE: FOllow the white rabbit
Alice is one of Matthew and Sheilas daughters.
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"u"
banana"s"
User ID: 539756
03-26-2020 05:22 PM

Posts: 1,363




Post: #56
RE: FOllow the white rabbit
spɹɐʍoɔ snoɯʎuouɐ  Wrote: (03-26-2020 05:13 PM)
So Alice is the collective of western democracies and post-WWII geopolitical alliances that your brand of hybrid fascism is trying to destroy... for the goal of establishing a global corporatocracy controlled authoritarian theocratic technocracy.

well n00b, this is not new to me.

um I was trying to say q's followers are alice,

and the we are one mentality is an existential threat.

among other threats.

Im not sure how they see it.




Can't Stump the Gump
Idol1
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"u"
banana"s"
User ID: 539756
03-26-2020 05:25 PM

Posts: 1,363




Post: #57
RE: FOllow the white rabbit
LoP Guest  Wrote: (03-26-2020 05:16 PM)
The rabbit done died.




your on acid

or alice-d chuckle

Can't Stump the Gump
Idol1
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